|Shawnee State Forest, Ohio's "Little Smokies"|
Consider the following typology of forest values definitions. You decide.
Aesthetic value--Valuing forest for enjoying scenery, sights, sounds, smells, etc.
Recreation value--Valuing forest because it provides a place for enjoyable outdoor recreation activities.
Learning value--Valuing forest because in forest we learn about the environment through scientific observation or experimentation.
Life sustaining value--Valuing forest because it helps produce, preserve, clean, and renew air, soil, and water.
Climate mitigation value--Valuing forest because it helps mitigate climate change by removing and sequestering atmospheric carbon.
Biological diversity value--Valuing forest because it conserves genetic diversity, species diversity, and biological community diversity.
Wildlife conservation value--Valuing forest because it provides a variety of fish, game and non-game wildlife, insect life, and plant life, etc.
Economic value--Valuing forest because it provides timber, alternative forest products, fisheries, minerals, or tourism opportunities such as amenities and services including outfitting and guiding services.
Spiritual value--Valuing forest because it is a sacred, religious, or spiritually special place, or inspires feelings of reverence and respect for nature.
Intrinsic value--Valuing forest in and of itself for its existence, no matter what other people think about forest.
Historic value--Valuing forest because it holds places and things of human and natural history that matter to individuals, peoples, or nations.
Future value--Valuing forest because it will allow future generations to know and experience forest as it is at present.
Subsistence value--Valuing forest because it provides necessary food and supplies to sustain subsisting families.
Therapeutic value--Valuing forest because it inspires physical and mental renewal contributing to happiness.
Cultural value--Valuing forest because it is a place to continue and pass down to future generations wisdom and knowledge, traditions, and a way of life sustained by ancestors to the present generation.
The typology presented is modified from Brown, Gregory and Patrick Reed 2000. Validation of a Forest Values Typology for use in National Forest Planning. Forest Science 46(2).